構造改革、民営化、市場原理主義の虚妄から、マインドコントロールを解くための参考図書館

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2014年9月

Kuroshio 122

災害避難所としての前方後円墳

 前方後円墳の形は、入舟、出舟の形ではないかとの仮説を提出したが、大方の前方後円墳は豪族などの墓であることは確かであるが、殉死を伴っている古墳は皆無であるし、中には、墓ではない古墳もある。古墳の周囲に埋め込まれた埴輪なども、民衆を生き埋めにする代わりに埋め込まれたとの説があるが、それは誤りで、擬人化された焼き物の像は、死後の世界で土木大工事をした指導者としての豪族などを守る、あの世で田畑を守る抽象的で素朴な兵士の像でしかない。だからこそ、秦の始皇帝の兵馬俑のような現実に迫ってくるような塑像が、明の十三陵のような巨大な地下空間のな墓の周囲に並ぶような姿はなく、抽象的な人形の素朴な焼き物が土留めの様に並ぶのが、埴輪の特徴である。大陸の王朝の墳墓とは異質で全くかけ離れたものであることを指摘しておきたい。要するに、日本の古墳は荒れ地を開墾して田畑をつくったことで生じた土砂の盛り土でしかなく、豪族が力を誇示するために民衆を酷使して強制的に作らせた墳墓ではない。実際、日本の古墳は、河岸段丘の縁などの少しの高台にあるものは多々あるにしても、深山幽谷には古墳は存...在しない。多摩川の下流にあり、東京の私鉄の東横線の車窓から多摩川の鉄橋を渡る際に眺めることのできる亀甲山古墳などはその典型である。巨大古墳の、例えば仁徳天皇陵などは、全くの平野部につくられており、開墾の残土を計画的に盛り土してできあがっていることが明らかになっている。大土木事業が、近畿の氾濫原野の治水工事として行われ、その残土が積まれてできあがった土砂の盛り土を、善政を行ったとして最も功労のあった者が、自らが指揮して積み上げた盛り土の山を墳墓としたことである。朝鮮半島の新羅の都であった慶州などに行くと月明かりの中に大きな円墳が美しいシルエットとなって眺望することができるが、厳然として権力を示す墓とすることを目的として建設されており、日本の前方後円墳のように、円部が森となった木々で覆われあるいは方の形の部分が芝生になって、周囲の土地を平らかにして、田畑となったただ中にあって、中には、環濠や池を巡らして土砂の流出を防御しているような穏やかな形とは、似て非なるものである。前方後円墳が舟の形をしていると仮定すれば、大水が出たときに舟が浮かんで、被害を避けることを象徴した形ではないだろうかと思うことは当然の成り行きで、近隣の農民は、近くの河川の氾濫から遁れて、前方後円墳の頂きの高みに避難することができる。人柱を権力者の墓の周囲に立てた例は、日本にはない。弟橘媛(おとたちばなひめ)の献身の物語も、愛と犠牲の話で、権力の賛美ではない。

 余談であるが、茨城の高浜に河口があり、霞が浦の北浦に流れ込む恋瀬川の名前は、小さな伊勢、つまり「こ・いせ」ではないかと想像する。北畠親房は筑波山麓の小田城で書いた神皇正統記に、「大日本(おほやまと)は神の国なり」と記したのであるが、恋瀬川は、その小田城の北側の谷を流れている。恋瀬川は源流を筑波山とする説もあるが、その上流を加波(かば)山にも辿ることができるから、恋瀬川を遡って加波山に至る往来があったことが分かる。加波山は修験道の山であり、海から川を辿って、常陸の原野を開拓していった黒潮の民と山の民との諍(いさかい)いもあったに違いないが、加波山神社が小伊勢神社として、伊勢の神徳を久しく仰いで来たとする解説からすれば、吉野の金峯山(きんぷせん)寺のように海と山とが出会う聖地として崇められてきたに違いない。加波山と筑波山とを両方遠望できる八郷盆地の中央を流れる恋瀬川の広大な沖積地の河岸段丘に丸山古墳はある。この古墳は、嵩神天皇の第一皇子豊城入彦命(とよきいりびこのみこと)の奥津城として伝承され、古墳の近くには、佐志能神社が鎮座している。そもそも、遙かに隔たる筑波山麓が伊勢の国司の領地であったことは驚くべきことである。しかし、黒潮の海と川を縦横に駆使する頻繁な往来があり、伊勢と常陸の国とが深く結びついていたことが分かれば、筑波山麓が大和朝廷の東国平定の根拠地になり、南北朝の動乱の時代に、伊勢の国司が小伊勢として安寧・隠遁の地としたとしても何ら不思議はない。

 大化の改新は六四五年であるが、その翌年、埋葬を簡素にすることを求める薄葬令が出され、火葬も実施されて、墳墓は簡素化されている。火葬された骨と青銅板の墓誌が、特段の副葬品もなく、桧の木棺に入れられるようになったが、その典型が、一九七九年に奈良の春日神社の東方約七〇〇メートルの比瀬町の通称トンボ山の丘陵の南斜面の茶畑から発見された古事記の編者、太(おおの)安(やす)万(ま)侶(ろ)の墓である。墓は、浅い谷の地形の中央に位置していた。墓誌は長さ二九センチ、幅六センチ、厚さ〇、五ないし一ミリ、重さ七五グラムの純銅の板で、太安万侶が平城京の左京四条四坊に住んでいた、そこで養老七年七月に死亡して、十二月十五日の日付を以て記している。養老五年には、竈(かまど)による火葬制度になるが、他の場所に埋葬してはならないとされ、安万侶の木棺は火葬の残りの木炭で覆われていた。権力の近くにあっても墓は簡素を旨としたことがわかる。(つづく)

Fabrication

Japan's pride should be restored. The fabrication by the Asahi newspaoer  is now reavealed

Mainichi daily news reported today, a translation of original Japanese language Mainichi Shimbun.

http://mainichi.jp/english/english/perspectives/news/20140911p2a00m0na013000c.html

There are no signs of an end to criticism of the Asahi Shimbun daily's Aug. 5 and 6 assessments of its past coverage of the wartime "comfort women" issue and its follow-up story on Aug. 28.

The core of the problem is testimony provided by the late Seiji Yoshida to the effect that he "hunted up" Korean women to make them serve as comfort women for Japanese soldiers during World War II.

The Asahi said it retracted articles on Yoshida's testimony after concluding that it was a fabrication. His testimony has had immeasurable influence on South Korean and international public opinion. Confusion over the matter has made it difficult to resolve the comfort women issue that is closely related to the dignity of people and historical perceptions. It has also prevented the international community from understanding Japan's position.

The testimony by Yoshida, who claimed that he had headed the mobilization section at the Shimonoseki branch of the Yamaguchi Prefectural Romu Hokokukai labor organization, which was in control of day laborers, was widely regarded as evidence that Korean women were forcibly taken away to serve as comfort women, and spread mistaken awareness of the issue throughout the world. Since 1982, the Asahi Shimbun had most enthusiastically covered Yoshida's testimony. Still, its article reviewing its coverage of his testimony failed to mention the reports' impact.

The comfort women issue suddenly emerged as a diplomatic matter between Japan and South Korea after the Asahi ran an article on Jan. 11, 1992, claiming that a document suggesting the Japanese military was involved in comfort stations had been discovered. The document was said at the time to constitute proof that overthrew the Japanese government's claim that the military was not involved in matters pertaining to comfort women and the claim that "private agencies were dragging around" comfort women.

Then Japanese Prime Minister Kiichi Miyazawa, who visited South Korea shortly afterwards, had no choice but to offer repeated apologies to then South Korean President Roh Tae-woo.

The Asahi Shimbun treated the document, which was a notice on the recruitment of comfort women domestically, as if it targeted Korean women. Moreover, the daily stated in its explanation about comfort women that mainly Korean women were forcibly taken away as "volunteer corps" after the Pacific War broke out, adding that the number of such women was said to reach 80,000 to 200,000. This gave the public the strong impression that comfort women were forcibly taken away under the name of "volunteer corps." Yoshida's testimony was regarded as specific proof of this story.

Following the Asahi's coverage, South Korean newspapers intensively reported on the comfort women issue, infuriating the country's public. On Jan. 16, 1992, when then Prime Minister Miyazawa visited South Korea, the Dong-A Ilbo daily reported that some of the young girls who were taken away as volunteer labor corps (at the age of around 12 and 13) were subsequently conscripted as comfort women.

In June this year, the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe released a report of its assessment of the August 1993 statement issued under the name of then Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono on the comfort women issue. The report mentions that the Asahi Shimbun coverage caused anti-Japan criticism in South Korea to heat up.

Following the heat-up of domestic public opinion, the South Korean government released an interim report on the situations of comfort stations for the military under Japan's colonial rule on July 31, 1992. A section of the report read: "Since around 1943 ... comfort women were recruited by hunting up women in a similar way to that of hunting up African slaves in the 19th century." The report stated that Yoshida testified to this in the second chapter of a book he authored. It was based on the assumption that Yoshida's testimony was accurate.

South Korean papers covered Seoul's investigative report with special emphasis on Yoshida's statement, with splash headlines such as "Women and girls hunted" (the Chosun Ilbo) and "Hunting up slaves" (the Dong-A Ilbo). South Korean people have thus come under the impression that comfort women had been forcibly taken away -- the South Korean government's official view.

On the other hand, historian Ikuhiko Hata, who specializes in modern history, raised doubts about Yoshida's testimony in the April 30, 1992 edition of the Sankei Shimbun daily and in the June issue of the monthly magazine "Seiron," which went on sale on May 1 that year, based on a fact-finding survey he conducted on Jeju Island, where Yoshida claimed that comfort women were hunted up. However, Yoshida's testimony was not immediately denied.

The Asahi Shimbun published a story on May 24, 1992, saying that Yoshida would visit South Korea to offer an apology. Western media outlets also reported Yoshida's testimony. In June 1992, the Associated Press introduced Yoshida as "the only Japanese to have publicly confessed involvement in the systematic kidnapping of women from Korean villages to be raped over and over again by Japanese soldiers during World War II." In a report dispatched to the world, the news agency quoted Yoshida as saying that he was "just like the Nazi officials who operated the gas chambers."

U.S.-based NBC also aired an interview with Yoshida, in which he said, "We tried to pick one or two women from each village -- young, healthy women. Criteria is whether they are suitable for comfort woman or not."

In August 1992, the New York Times quoted Yoshida as saying that he had seized perhaps 2,000 women. "It may be the worst abuse of human rights in Asia in this century," he was quoted as saying. At the same time, the daily quoted Hata as warning that all news organizations were being deceived by Yoshida.

The Kono statement was compiled shortly before the Miyazawa Cabinet resigned in 1993. It does not adopt the view that Korean women were forcibly taken away to serve as comfort women but admits that there was coercion of comfort women, saying, "in many cases they were recruited against their own will."

Sakutaro Tanino, who played a key role in compiling the statement as then head of the Cabinet Councillors' Office on External Affairs, has told the Mainichi Shimbun, "He (Yoshida) was well known to the public at the time. Younger officials of the Cabinet Councillors' Office on External Affairs met him about twice. However, he was exited and was unable to talk calmly. So we didn't reflect what he said in the statement."

However, Yoshida's statement continued to influence the world.

A report that the U.N. Commission on Human Rights issued in January 1996, known as the "Coomaraswamy report," defines the comfort women system as "military sexual slavery" and recommended that the Japanese government pay state compensation, apologize to victims and punish perpetrators.

The report says the wartime experiences of Seiji Yoshida are recorded in his book, in which he confesses to having been part of slave raids in which, among other Koreans, "as many as 1,000 women were obtained for 'comfort women' duties under the National Labor Service Association as part of the National General Mobilization Law."

Meiji University professor Yasuaki Onuma, who has long been involved in efforts to get to the bottom of the comfort women issue, points out problems with the Coomaraswamy report. "It contains incorrect quotes and its academic level is low on the whole," he says.

The report's explanation of the comfort women system is based on "The Comfort Women: Japan's Brutal Regime of Enforced Prostitution in the Second World War" authored by Australian journalist George L. Hicks. Based on Yoshida's book, Hicks states that slave hunting was conducted whenever other methods failed.

Shortly after the Sankei Shimbun reported Hata's view on the issue, a reporter at the Asahi Shimbun's Tokyo city news department met with Yoshida and "asked Yoshida to introduce relevant individuals and submit data to corroborate his testimony, but the reporter said Yoshida rejected the request," the Asahi's assessment says. The Asahi asked Yoshida for a meeting again for its special coverage of the comfort women issue on March 31, 1997, but Yoshida rejected the request, the daily says. The Asahi wrote in its special feature that year that it could not be confirmed whether what Yoshida said was true because the paper was not sure at the time whether his testimony was a fabrication, according to its assessment.

Former Asahi Shimbun executive editor Yoshibumi Wakamiya, who was serving as managing editor of the daily's political news department in 1997, told the Mainichi Shimbun, "Naturally, there were calls for retracting or correcting earlier reports in the special coverage at the time. I also made such assertions. It's really regrettable that the paper failed to do so (earlier)."

In September 2006, the first Abe Cabinet was launched. Abe had insisted that the Kono statement be reviewed. However, a draft resolution urging the Japanese government to apologize over the comfort women issue was submitted to the U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs in January 2007, and was adopted at a House plenary session on July 30 that year. Parliaments of the Netherlands, Canada and the European Union subsequently adopted similar resolutions urging Japan to apologize over the issue.

The U.S. House resolution recognizes the comfort women system as "forced military prostitution by the Government of Japan" and bitterly criticizes Japan, saying the system was "unprecedented in its cruelty and magnitude, including gang rape, forced abortions, humiliation, and sexual violence resulting in mutilation, death, or eventual suicide in one of the largest cases of human trafficking in the 20th century."

A document explaining the comfort women system to congressmen, which was attached to the draft resolution, also mentions Yoshida's book.

At the same time, monuments for former comfort women have been erected in several places in the United States, mainly at the request of South Korean organizations. The epigraph on the monument in Palisades Park, New Jersey, says, "In Memory of the more than 200,000 women and girls who were abducted by the armed forces of the government of Imperial Japan, while that in Glendale, California, states, "In memory of more than 200,000 Asian and Dutch women who were removed from their homes ... to be coerced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Armed Forces of Japan." These are based on South Korea's assertions. As such, the view comfort women were "forcibly taken away" still persists.

-- Mainichi reporting humbly faces up to facts --

The Mainichi Shimbun has always faced up to the facts humbly in reporting the news.

News coverage can have huge impact on society and cause diplomatic friction, just as the Asahi Shimbun's coverage of the comfort women issue is said to have caused worldwide misunderstanding that the former Japanese military was systematically involved in snatching away Korean women for the comfort women system. We feel that we have the responsibility as a news organization to promptly correct any mistake and provide a convincing explanation to the public.

This is a special feature about the content of the Asahi Shimbun coverage of the comfort women issue and its impact, and a report on how the Mainichi Shimbun has covered the issue.

At the same time, we at the Mainichi Shimbun are concerned that confusion over this matter could hinder efforts to nurture forward-looking relations between Japan and South Korea. We are also worried that Japan cannot win understanding from the international community, which has discussed the protection of women's human rights on many occasions.

The Mainichi Shimbun is determined to humbly cover the facts with an eye to the future. (By Hajime Ogawa, General Managing Editor, Tokyo Head Office)

-- How the Mainichi Shimbun covered the comfort women issue --

The Mainichi Shimbun has published two articles on Seiji Yoshida. The stories covered Yoshida's visit to South Korea on Aug. 11, 1992, to "apologize for the past." On the city news page in its Aug. 12, 1992 Tokyo morning edition and the city news page in its Tokyo morning edition the following day, the Mainichi Shimbun reported that Yoshida offered an apology directly to former comfort women and others concerned. Both reported simply what Yoshida did on that day, each with a two-column headline.

Regarding the mix-up of comfort women and volunteer corps, when the Mainichi Shimbun published an article about former comfort women Kim Hak-sun in the "Hito" ("Person") column in the morning edition on Dec. 13, 1991, the story said girls and women aged at least 14 were taken away from the Korean Peninsula as members of the volunteer corps, etc. and made to serve as comfort women for the military. This was based on explanations provided by supporters of former comfort women and other sources. In the "Asia Now" column in its evening edition on Jan. 22, 1992, the Mainichi Shimbun stated that comfort women and the volunteer corps are separate, and has since made efforts to ensure that the mix-up is not repeated.

The Mainichi Shimbun reported on the front page of in its Aug. 7, 2013 morning edition that a Korean man's diaries describing his experiences working at comfort stations in Myanmar and Singapore were found in South Korea. The diaries could be described as important primary sources for calm discussions on the comfort women issue. However, no diary has been found from the time he may have been involved in the recruitment of comfort women on the Korean Peninsula.

In response to South Korea's tough stance on the issue, the Mainichi Shimbun called for calm discussions in its editorial.

-- Asahi fails to identify 16 articles that it says were based on Yoshida's testimony --

In its assessment, the Asahi Shimbun stated that the paper "has run, as far as it can confirm, at least 16 articles" regarding Yoshida's testimony. It said, "We have made the judgment that the testimony that Yoshida forcibly took away comfort women on Jeju was a fabrication. We retract our articles on him."

The Asahi only explained that the first story on the matter was run on the city news page of its Sept. 2, 1982 Osaka morning edition, but gave no further details about the 16 articles.

The Mainichi Shimbun contacted the Asahi Shimbun over the dates of publication of the 16 stories, but the Asahi's public relations department declined to answer, saying, "We will report what we must report to our readers in our paper or on Asahi Shimbun Digital."

-- Ex-Mainichi Seoul bureau chief Masaharu Shimokawa: 'I was sure his apology was a performance' --

I first covered Yoshida when he appeared at a rally in Seoul on Aug. 12, 1992 saying, "I'd like to apologize over the forcible taking away of comfort women." About 10 former comfort women were invited to the rally at a hall reserved by the association of the bereaved families of Pacific War victims, which also organized the event. Yoshida apologized for "having been involved in forcibly taking away Korean people as part of my duty."

However, when he said the Japanese government should build a high-speed railway line between Seoul and Busan to express its regret over the issue, I felt his comments were bizarre. So I wrote an article simply describing what happened during the rally and sent it to Japan.

After the rally, a Japanese supporter said, "Can anyone drive Mr. Yoshida to the hotel? So I offered to do so because I wanted to get some time to interview him. After getting into the car, I asked which hotel he was staying at, and he mentioned one of the most luxurious hotels in Seoul. I said, "You're staying at a nice hotel, aren't you?" I was surprised when he said, "A Japanese TV station covered my travel expenses."

When I wrote this in the "As I See It" column, I was unable to write that Yoshida was a "dubious" character, so instead I wrote, "I couldn't help but stare at his face." I was convinced that his apology was nothing but a performance.

An Assembly in Koriyama, Fukushima 

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 「これでいいのか日本!」全国縦断シンポジウム 第3回福島大会
   
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   来 賓  品川萬里 郡山市長、桜井勝延 南相馬市長
   司 会  南丘喜八郎
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 平成二十六年八月十二日

 躍進日本!春風の会代表 村上正邦( 元参議院自民党議員会長) 

Kuroshio 121

風葬の既視感を誘う高浜神社裏手墓地

涸沼(ひぬま)からの川の流れと那珂川とが合流する地点が、水戸市川(かわ)又(また)町の地名となっている。大津波で川又の田んぼは潮をかぶった。三十センチから四十センチは地盤が沈下して、汽水が用水路を逆流するようになった。水門もあるが、満潮の時間にはサシ板を乗り越えるから嵩上げ修理が急がれるが、工事はなかなか進まない。那珂湊と那珂川の境の水門も上下駆動の仕掛けが故障したままだ。涸沼でのシジミ取りなどに影響が出る怖れがあるとして、これまで、地元住民は護岸堤防の建設に反対してきたが、これだけ地盤が沈下すれば上流で大雨が降れば大洪水になる怖れも現実味を帯びてきたから、反対論は下火になったと、田畑の見回りに来た農業人の立ち話を聞いた。相馬の野馬追見物を口実に、福島浜通りの海岸線を回ると、江戸時代に干拓した場所はほぼ例外なく津波に洗い流され、松林が防潮林としては弱かったことが証明されて、白砂青松がそれほど歴史の深い景色ではなく江戸時代の開発の時代の典型に過ぎないことが再確認できた。相馬市鹿島区に塩崎という地名があり、もう山側と思われるくらいに、海岸から一里以上は内陸に入った場所だが、川を津波が逆流して襲ったとのことで、昔の津波で潮が到達した場所を示す地名だった。豊橋の潮崎や水戸の塩崎町なども、その昔は、波打ち際にあったことの名残に違いない。沖縄の糸満市の潮崎は埋め立て地だ。汐崎は下北半島の岬の名前にある。

日本列島で海面が一番上昇したのが、六千年前のいわゆる「縄文海浸」の時代で、現在の海面より5~7メートルは高かったことが、貝塚の分布や地質調査ではっきりしている。縄文の時代には、現在の日本列島の平野は存在していなかったのである。石狩、仙台、関東、濃尾、大阪、筑後などの平野は海の底であった。だから、今は平野となっている当時の浅海は、シジミやハマグリなどの食用の貝類が湧くように生息していた豊饒の海であったことは間違いない。相馬の松川浦も、今回の大地震で地盤が沈下して、立派な内海に変貌していたのは驚きであった。

茨城県の常磐線の高浜駅の近辺は、海面が上昇していた時代には、交通の要衝の地で会ったことを想像する。霞が浦が文字通りの大湾の浅海であった時代には、その最北の湾奥の港が高浜にあった。高浜から恋瀬川(昔は信筑(しづく)の川という)を遡って筑波山に至る重要な交通路であった。常陸国風土記によれば  春の花、秋の紅葉の頃には、社郎(むらをとこ)と漁嬢(あまをとめ)とが、濱洲(はま)を逐(おひは)せて集い、舟に乗って商人(あきひと)と農夫(たひと)が行き交う風光明媚な交流の場所だったとする。常磐線の高浜 駅を東におりて左側に回り踏切を越えて、丘陵地帯の坂を登り切ったところに舟塚山古墳がある。舟塚山古墳は茨城の古墳の中でも最大級で、新治(にいはり)郡、行方(なめかた)郡、稲敷郡と称する地域の豪族の墓であろう。急な崖の上に築造されているが、その崖は、霞ヶ浦の波打ち際がそこまであった証拠の海食崖である。すぐ近くに、府中愛宕山古墳もある。少し小ぶりの古墳である。いずれも前方後円墳である。舟塚山古墳では後円の部分が南側にあり、愛宕山古墳は逆になっていて、地元の伝承では、舟塚山を港に入る舟の形をしているから入舟といい、愛宕山を出舟の形と言っている。円の部分は、舟で言えば船橋に当たり高さが方の部分より高い。前方後円墳は古墳の一形式であるが、平面が円形と方形の墳丘を組み合わせた形状は、日本独特である。規模の巨大さも特徴としている。日本列島の広範囲に分布しており、北は岩手県から南は鹿児島県にまで及び、近年、朝鮮半島西南部にも存在することが確認されているが、その形状は、伝承の通り舟の形であるとすれば、黒潮が当時は島であった銚子の岬で大きく太平洋に向かうから、南からの船が霞が浦に入り、その一番奥の港が高浜で、そこに上陸して奥州に向かう拠点になっていたに違いない。ふたつの大きな古墳の近くには、陪冢(ばいちよう)と呼ばれる小さな墳があちらこちらに残る。先祖の墓が剥かれて畑になった嘆きも残り、陪冢という難しい言葉を、地元では誰でも今でも知っている。石岡に国分寺が置かれ、国司がはるばる赴任する際、上陸した港が高浜であったとすれば、筑波山の麓の領地を持った伊勢の国司、北畠親房も高浜を経由したのだろうか。高浜神社の裏手の崖の中腹の墓地には、海岸に風葬の跡がある南島での既視感がある。古式の鳥居のような門が結界として立っている。高浜神社には、樹齢数百年になる栗の大木があるが、栗と言えば、食用の実のなる木で縄文時代の代表だ。美濃の中津川の名産は栗きんとんであるが、菓子屋の本店が、工場も店舗も、建屋の木材を全部、栗材で豪勢に建設したことを加子母村の木材会社の社長から聞いて、見物に行ったことがある。山内丸山遺跡の材木の遺物にも栗の木があった。高浜神社は、香取神宮から神官が赴いて祭礼を続けてきた、もともと神主のいない神社だ。霞が浦の風波が荒く、鹿嶋神宮あたりに舟を出すことが難しいときには、国司一行の旅人の為の仮の宿泊あるいは祈祷の施設としてもともと建設されたのかも知れない。(つづく)

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